(Leopold Report 100624) In the period 1988-1992, the three US citizens Robert Harkavy, William Herrmann, and Oswald LeWinter, presented three different stories to the public about who was behind the Palme murder and - directly or via intermediaries - to the Swedish Murder Investigation Group (PU), while appearing to be three independent sources.
Herrmann and LeWinter both accused the CIA, in various versions, while Harkavy came up with an Arab solution that moved from Morocco via Libya to the Middle East, including a small contribution from Mossad.
Herrmann and Harkavy were both declared disinformants by the Swedish Government's Murder Investigation Commission (GK). Herrmann was also declared a disinformant by the US Congress. LeWinter was declared a disinformant by the FBI - and he even admitted being in this trade himself!
This was covered in the three first articles. In addition, we have shown
that LeWinter indeed was a professional disinformant, but not as a freelancer,
as claimed by the FBI. Rather, he had been deployed by the FBI itself as
well as the CIA.
The Swedish Foreign Ministry, the Swedish Security Police (SÄPO), and the FBI were all behind the information to PU that "nothing was known about William Herrmann". However, it turned out that Professor Harkavy knew about him. In March, 1993, according to GK, he told PU that Herrmann was willing to come to Sweden to provide more information. Thus, Harkavy revealed that he knew Herrmann, that he knew Herrmann was one of PU's sources, and that he acted as Herrmann's messenger.
Hence, this pair is tied together.
In light of this, it is interesting that both had extensive networks in Sweden:
Arms dealer William Herrmann had visited Sweden several times from the early 80's until the disclosure of the Bofors scandal in 1985. Later, he also was in Sweden at a number of occasions in connection with the Palme investigation, and in connection with his own contacts in the arms industry (Bofors and the Swedish arms dealer Sven Klang).
The Bofors scandal was about illegal exports of Swedish arms and ammunition to countries at war or in warlike situations. It was discontinued after Prime Minister Palme became aware of it in 1985 - six months before he was murdered.
Harkavy had spent much time in Sweden from 1985 to 1993. His extensive network in Sweden was more or less described by GK. Already in 1985, he worked at the SIPRI peace research institute, and established a relationship with Emma Rotschild, who had a personal relationship to Palme. After the 1986 Palme murder, he was in contact with Ebbe Carlsson. He even tried to get in touch with Palme's widow Lisbeth and his son Mårten via Emma Rotschild. Further, Harkavy made contact with Ambassador Hans Dahlgren at the Prime Minister's Office (GK p. 508). Harkavy said that he also had received information from Bernt Carlsson, one of the Palmes closest advisers (GK p. 508). Harkavy was so well known in Sweden that he gave lectures at SIPRI and the Swedish Foreign Policy Institute several times in the period 1991-1992.
Palme's relationship to Emma Rotschild must have caused a lot of attention
in the Swedish secret services. She was the oldest daughter of the British
national Victor Rotschild, who had been employed by MI5 during the WWII,
and played a very important role in MI5/MI6 and Conservative UK governments
for many decades. Together with one of his best friends, the famous spy
hunter Peter Wright of MI5, he was involved in the operations in the 70's
and 80's that aimed at getting the necessary evidence to prove that Labour
Leader and PM Harold Wilson was a Russian spy (Wright 1987). In hindsight,
one can say that such a personal relationship between this kind of daughter
and this kind of socialist prime minister is rather rare.
Thus, he had also acquired detailed knowledge of the Swedish society.
In February, 1992, he told PU that a contact person, who allegedly belonged to the Mossad, in 1991 had shown him a death list including Olof Palme, Carl-Fredrik Algernon and Bernt Carlsson (GK p. 507).
Carl-Fredrik Algernon was a Swedish Navy officer who reached Admiral's rank. From 1981 until his death, he was a munitions inspector at the Swedish Foreign Ministry, responsible for upholding Swedish law on arms and ammunition exports. Algernon came into media focus in connection with the 1985 Bofors scandal. Many believed his death in the Stockholm subway in 1987 in fact was a murder linked to the Palme assassination.
Palme was assassinated in 1986, Algernon died under mysterious circumstances
in the Stockholm subway in 1987, and Carlsson was a PanAm 103 passenger
and was murdered in the 1988 Lockerbie disaster. These had for several years
been well-known events that Harkavy exploited to make himself interesting.
However, they hardly helped making his alleged death list particularly credible.
Herrmann and LeWinter both claimed they had been participants in connection with the Iran-Contra scandal, and they both worked against media and the Congress. Both of them dodged closer investigation and hearings in the Congress.
Later, both were parts of a group of less than ten people appearing in connection with the so-called October Surprise scandal. LeWinter also in this connection dodged the investigation and the Congress hearings by "fleeing" to Europe. Herrmann, on the other hand, was investigated by the Congress, and in clear terms declared a disinformant.
Although LeWinter was able to evade the Congressional Task Force that investigated the October Surprise allegations, the Chief Attorney, former District Attorney E. Lawrence Barcella jr., had a conversation with him (we don't know whether they met in the United States or Germany, or talked by telephone). In this conversation, LeWinter stated that his October Surprise allegations "had been a complete fabrication", but he refused to say the same under oath (Washington Post 2001).
This was obviously in accordance with the overall strategy; the time had come to discredit the message. This happened "automatically" for the stories from the other disinformants in the group, since these stories were designed in a way that would make it easy for the Congress to reveal them as forgeries with its own means. The disinformants would of course maintain their stories when questioned under oath, and thus escape prosecution. LeWinter's mission, however, was to torpedo his own history and thereby the entire October Surprise story. He had to make a statement about the falsehood of his allegations, but it could not be made under oath, since this would expose him to criminal charges, and open for a host of new questions: Did he have any principals, who they were, and so on. This is why LeWinter refused Barcella's request that he should make the same statement under oath. This way, however, LeWinter himself confirms indirectly that he indeed had principals - and that's what is important in the Palme case and other cases where LeWinter is involved as a disinformant.
The October Surprise group mostly consisted of arms dealers. One of these was the arms dealer Richard Brenneke, with whom LeWinter had appeared on Italian television when they claimed that the CIA and the Italian P2 lodge were behind the Palme murder.
LeWinter kept so close company with arms dealers that Washington Times (1991) - perhaps mistakenly - described him, too, as an arms dealer. In the midst of this group, we also find arms dealer William Herrmann, who in connection with the Palme case used Professor Harkavy from the same American university as Professor LeWinter as a messenger (see below).
Both LeWinter and Herrmann appeared as sources in media and in a number of books about October Surprise and Iran/Contra published in this period (Bainerman 1992, Blum 1995, Bondeson 2005, Honegger 1989, Hunter et al 1986, Parry 1993, Sick 1991, Stich 1999, Tarpley et al 1992, Vankin et al 1998, and Willan 1991, as well as hundreds of newspaper stories).
Both acted as provocateurs for the FBI, LeWinter in Germany and the United States, and Herrmann in the UK. They were also both connected to the CIA.
On PU's question about whether Herrmann knew about Oswald LeWinter, he responded that, "he only had heard the name Oswald W mentioned", and that "this person was believed to work for Israeli intelligence" (GK p 443).
Both gave PU sensational information - Herrmann by appearing in person in meetings with the investigators; LeWinter via intermediaries/media.
The message was the same: That the CIA was behind the murder.
It was important for the disinformants' principals to open a CIA disinformation campaign against the investigators of the assassination of Olof Palme at just this time; in the autumn of 1988 (we will explain this point in detail in a later article, after more material has been presented). At this time, suspicions and accusations against the CIA as the instigator of the murder appeared from many directions, in Sweden as well as internationally.
The disinformants were inserted into this chorus. The background they claimed for themselves was partly true and linked them to the CIA, which would make them credible as a kind of "defectors". But towards the end of the investigations they initiated, it became clear to PU that they also supplied false and contradictory information, so absurd that they lost all credibility as informers.
For years, information was disseminated in the media that the "informants" had nothing whatsoever with US intelligence to do, and so forth. This created a public opinion against the theory that the CIA was behind the murder, and caused the Palme investigation more or less to close the entire CIA lead - for which it was criticized by the Government's Commission (GK).
But this was also the original intention with the very professional disinformation campaign.
This is more than enough evidence that Herrmann and LeWinter were connected
to common superiors and often worked the same arenas. Hence, it is also
very likely that they knew each other.
Harkavy and LeWinter
Harkavy was from 1978 and for several decades Professor of Political
Science at the Pennsylvania State University,
see his CV and the quote below from GK, p. 505:
It so happens that also Oswald LeWinter was a teacher at Penn State University,
in English, humanities, and comparative literature, as early as from the
sixties - see scan. This ties these two disinformants together.
The three made up a group
Now we can see that the three disinformants can be connected in pairs, which increases the likelihood that all three knew each other and worked together in a joint operation. The decisive factor is that all three of them - even separately - can be connected to the FBI, the CIA, and the US military establishment. LeWinter can also be connected to Mossad as well as to missions for the British intelligence and security services MI5 and MI6 (see below). Harkavy claimed that he personally had a connection to a Mossad agent who had shown him a death list, and therefore must have been a high-level agent.
Protected by the FBI
We have in parts 2 and 3 of this series shown that Herrmann as well as LeWinter cooperated extensively with the FBI - in several countries - before they appeared in the Palme murder case, and that the FBI made great efforts to protect them.
In connection with PU's efforts to learn something about Herrmann and LeWinter, it had to maintain a long, slow and cumbersome correspondence with the FBI in Washington, sometimes via London. From what we know, there was no direct contact between PU and officials at the US Embassy in Stockholm about the American citizens about whom PU wanted information. This was quite irregular, since both the time factor and practical considerations required that the US authorities should have set up a system allowing efficient assistance to Sweden in Stockholm. When agencies work together on a friendly basis to undertake a common task, it is normal to ensure close, continuous, and not least personal contact. That is why we have embassies!
But in this case, it didn't work this way, again suggesting that the
matter was highly sensitive.
This can only be interpreted as another kind of protection of "Operation Palme", including the disinformants that had been deployed. By avoiding direct personal contact between US and Swedish officials in Stockholm, and by ensuring complete control of the information flow in written form, the communication was protected entirely against all sorts of hints, slips-of-the-tongue, or body language. Such precautions are not required between partners that otherwise have pleasant and friendly relations.
It would have been a simple matter for the US embassy in Stockholm to appoint a special liaison for the cooperation with PU, if the Americans had wanted to, unless they already had a legal attaché that could have been given this job.
The evasive FBI effort, directed from Washington, contrasts sharply to the CIA's immediate and efficient effort in Stockholm to find Palme's murderer. At various occasions during the first two years after the murder of Palme, the CIA put personnel as well as equipment to the disposal of the Swedish Security Police (SÄPO) and PU.
The CIA even assisted the Swedish in phonetapping and possibly also bugging of Russian embassy personnell." Already in the first hours and days after the murder, the CIA and SÄPO bugged a number of the Kurds' living quarters and meeting rooms in Stockholm. (GK 663-675, Poutiainen 1995:768-775, 785-788), Wall 1998:211-219, 261, 263-326, 331-345, Lidbom 1990:180, 190). The suspicions against the Russian and the Kurds (separately and linked together) later turned out to be disinformation leads.
Thus we see that it was rendered maximum US effort and cooperation by the CIA to promote disinformation leads, but virtually zero effort from the FBI to reveal American disinformants who sabotaged the Palme murder investigation!
Such contradictory behaviour from the two key US government agencies leads to the conclusion that the operations had a certain over-all, coordinated planning.
The provocateur LeWinter was protected in the Princess Diana case
Princess Diana (the Princess of Wales) was - as everyone remembers - killed in a tragic car accident 31 August, 1997, together with her new boyfriend, Dodi Fayed. Dodi was the son of Mohamed Abdel Moneim Al Fayed, who is a wealthy Egyptian investor and businessman in the UK. He owned i. a. the famous Harrods magazine until May, 2010.
There were several suggestions in British and foreign press that the British intelligence and security services MI5 and MI6 had kept Diana and Dodi under continuous surveillance, including interception of their telephones. Similar allegations had for long been made about surveillance of Princess Diana and Prince Charles after they had parted, and of Prince Charles in connection with his relationship with Camilla Parker Bowles.
Princess Diana was an icon in British and European society. After her
breakup with Prince Charles, she invested a lot of time in building her
new life, and she had a strong social commitment. Internationally, she became
best known for her extensive work against landmines.
The fatal Paris accident
After the fatal accident in Paris, the British went into a state of national mourning that spread over large parts of the world. Public opinion condemned the paparazzis, the media, and anybody who was considered to have contributed to the accident.
Every now and then, there appeared allegations that British intelligence had provided British media with information about Diana and her relationship to Dodi, and that they therefore was responsible for the harassment from media and the paparazzis that eventually made Diana and Dodi a couple on continuous flight from their pursuers.
It might look like as if an "invisible hand" had implemented a strategy for discrediting, and to destroy Princess Diana's relationship to Dodi.
Media persecution contributed without doubt to what happened after the couple left the hotel in Paris until the accident in the tunnel.
In this atmosphere of hysteria and national mourning, even allegations that the MI6 had been involved in the accident as such gained some credibility.
MI5 and MI6 forced to counter-attack
MI5 and MI6 were now forced to launch an attack against the strongest accusations that came from the Al Fayed family that demanded all the cards on the table. They wanted not only to uncover the circumstances surrounding the accident, but also to investigate certain other aspects. Al Fayed senior, who had lost his eldest son and a possible future daughter in law, had unlimited resources.
In order to stop the Al Fayed family's investigation, the UK agencies turned to its closest partner, the CIA, which deployed its disinformant Oswald LeWinter. Following the well-known patterns of disinformation, the plan was - as we shall see below - that LeWinter first would accuse MI6 for having contributed to the accident, and provided media with gossip about Diana and Dodi.
The intention was later to disseminate discrediting information about LeWinter, thus to kill the true allegations along with the false ones.
In 1998, from his temporary residence in Austria (where he incidentally also had been born and spent his early childhood years), Oswald LeWinter implemented an operation against the Al Fayed family in London, in which he tried to sell fake documents showing that the intelligence service MI6 had been involved in the accident. As usual, LeWinter stated that he had extensive connections with the CIA.
Al Fayed family unmask CIA and LeWinter
Al Fayed put together a dedicated staff of lawyers, investigators and security experts with connections within the secret services. The experts could eventually conclude that LeWinter's behaviour was a provocation designed by CIA/MI6 and protected by the FBI and the US Department of Justice.
Towards the end, the Al Fayed family filed a complaint against the CIA and a number of other US institutions, in which they i. a. claimed that the CIA and the FBI had helped prevent legal persecution of LeWinter & Co. The lawsuit was not successful, but the ruling by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit 13 July, 2001, (District Of Columbia Circuit Court 2001) [lenke] contains the plaintiffs' submissions and accounts of the preceding events. In addition, there is much information in the Washington Post (2001). Our recounting below is based on what can be inferred from these as well as other sources listed below in the references section.
Al Fayed's experts decided that the falsified documents were so well made, in content as well as form, that they left an impression of genuineness. In addition, LeWinter had also this time good and detailed relevant knowledge of the CIA and the MI6.
All of this contributed to a suspicion that LeWinter in this case not only had a connection to, but also help from the CIA - and hence that he acted on behalf of the CIA.
However, It appears from the verdict that the Al Fayed family and its advisers initially had an open mind as to whether they had been victimized by a coordinated operation MI6/CIA and LeWinter together, or by a stand-alone fraud operation designed by LeWinter alone to earn money.
To clarify this, the Al Fayed family's lawyers initially alerted the CIA and the FBI about LeWinter and his documents and allegations. In parallel, they also alerted Austrian authorities. They agreed to meet with LeWinter in Vienna for a preliminary working session (under secret surveillance). In connection with a later second meeting, LeWinter was arrested and put in prison in Vienna.
The CIA and the FBI strongly condemned LeWinter and his collaborators (including a lawyer's office and a journalist in California). On the US side, the "attempted scam" was handled by the US Attorney General's office in Washington DC, which promised the Al Fayed family to prosecute those who were involved in LeWinters fraud operation.
However, it turned out that no part of the US Government was interested in prosecuting LeWinter & Co., neither for the fraud operation against the Al Fayed family, nor for abuse or falsification of alleged official US documents. Moreover, LeWinter had presented himself as a previous CIA employee, for which he also escaped prosecution.
The most serious aspect was that US authorities had urged Al Fayed to transfer USD 25,000 to LeWinter & Co as an advance. The reason was - as they had told Al Fayed in advance - that the US authorities then at least would be able to prosecute LeWinter & Co for this part of the fraud operation. But after the Al Fayed family had followed the advice, the Attorney General still would not prosecute.
Based on this experience, the Al Fayed family concluded that LeWinter & Co clearly had protection from the FBI as well as the CIA, and that these agencies therefore must have contributed to halting the prosecution that had been promised and facilitated by the Attorney General's office. Thus, it was a reasonable conclusion that LeWinter really had the CIA as his principal.
It was at this point that the family filed its complaint against the CIA as the main defendant, and the National Security Agency (NSA), the FBI, the Department of State, the Department of Defence, the Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA), the Department of Justice, the Executive Office for United States Attorneys, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and the US Secret Service as co-defendants.
The background for the complaint is summarized this way in the ruling:
"[The] plaintiffs allege that the United States Attorney's Office for the District of Columbia promised to prosecute those involved in LeWinter's fraudulent scheme, but failed to do so. [..] They further contend that the CIA and FBI may have been involved in efforts to prevent those prosecutions."
The complaint describes how the Al Fayed family had been the victim of an attempted fraud from Oswald LeWinter, "a man claiming connections to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), who tried to sell Al Fayed fabricated documents indicating that MI6 was involved in the automobile crash."
It was also claimed that the NSA had bugged Princess Diana's telephone conversations, and that it could be proven that the family driver of the accident car (who also died) had been secretly recruited by the MI6 to spy on Diana and Dodi.
Al Fayed's source for the latter point was a former British intelligence officer who had delivered such evidence to the French investigators in Paris. Moreover, Al Fayed claimed that US authorities at the initiative of the British government had ensured that this intelligence officer had been refused entry to the United States to present his evidence.
Another part of the background for the complaint was that the Al Fayed family in July/August, 2000, had made a request under the US Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) to get access to all documents concerning the circumstances surrounding Diana's and Dodi's death that might be in the files of the CIA and its co-defendants. The request also included all documents concerning LeWinter and his operation, interception of Diana's telephone conversations, and the MI6's recruitment of the driver. All these requests had been turned down.
Unfortunately, the Court did not support the Al Fayed family at any point. Hence, there was no US criminal prosecution of Oswald LeWinter, and the Al Fayed did not get access to any information about LeWinter from US files.
Why was an operation with LeWinter required?
Why did the MI5 and MI6 need help from the professional disinformant Oswald LeWinter?
The CIA and the British security and intelligence services have always been close partners. In difficult situations, they always support each other. Being accused - as MI5 and MI6 were - of having been involved in a fatal accident in which a princess is killed can be considered to be among the worst that can happen to a national service. The population's and the authorities' confidence was at stake.
We have previously shown that LeWinter worked for both the FBI and the CIA, and there are also reports that he worked for the Israeli intelligence service Mossad. He was apparently one of the CIA's most experienced disinformants, with broad international experience. His various operations suggest that he has his nerves under control even in very difficult situations. Hence, he was evidently a natural choice for the CIA when it was asked to put a good disinformant to the disposal of the agencies in the UK.
Hence, Oswald LeWinter undertook operations that affected a US presidential election, he helped to conceal the traces of those responsible for the murder of the Swedish Prime Minister, and now he helped acquit the British intelligence and security services from all accusations about surveillance of Diana and Dodi and involvement in the tragic car accident.
This shows not only the cynicism of these intelligence services, but also the ruthlessness of a well paid tradesman in disinformation around murder and political intrigues. We will later return to other LeWinter-operations in this trade.
This makes it easier to understand why not even Al Fayed, after he had uncovered the CIA's and the FBI's protection of LeWinter, was able to get hold of the evidence that these were LeWinter's principals.
It doesn't surprise us that it looks like the FBI also kept secret to the Al Fayed family that the FBI already many years earlier, in connection with the Palme murder, had informed Swedish authorities that LeWinter was a fraudster who operated on his own behalf.
SÄPO and the Foreign Ministry
If LeWinter had been unmasked early as a professional disinformant during the investigation of the Palme murder, his later operations, such as the operation against Al Fayed, would have been unthinkable.
Neither the Swedish Foreign Ministry nor the Swedish security service SÄPO apparently followed the developments in the Princess Diana matter. Given all the publicity around this event and the serious allegations, it is strange if these institutions never caught on to LeWinter's name, which they knew well from the Palme investigation (see some examples from the extensive international media coverage of LeWinter in the reference section below).
If the Swedish Foreign Ministry and SÄPO had done their proper job, and informed the Palme investigators about LeWinter's operations against the Al Fayed family, PU would have been able to resume its investigation and discover the lead that could have solved the murder.
Finally, if the Al Fayed family had learned about LeWinter's disinformation campaign in Sweden (as well as all the others), they might have succeeded in their efforts to discover LeWinter's principals and partners, and to get access to all other relevant information.
But none of this happened.
Many questions remain about the Foreign Ministry's as well as SÄPO's performance. We will return to these questions in a later article.
We have established the many connections and common denominators that link the three disinformants together to a group, and we have shown that they all three, separately and together, had close connections with the CIA and FBI. We have also recounted the enormous efforts of the FBI to protect Herrmann and LeWinter, and indirectly also Harkavy. Together, this represented a very effective protection of the entire group.
We believe this is sufficient to conclude on the first three points from the introduction "beyond all reasonable doubt."
In forthcoming articles, we will continue to provide information, analysis and assessments that in the same way will establish a foundation for points 4 and 5.
Let's repeat that it is very hard in a case like this to present a small set of documents as evidence that immediately removes all doubt. Solving a case involving secret services require painstaking combination of multiple pieces of evidence combined with analysis and complementary knowledge, before the truth can emerge.
Our task is to draw conclusions at a level that shows that it is necessary for the Swedish authorities to start a new investigation into the murder of Olof Palme, in cooperation with today's US authorities - that are able to provide the necessary documents.
PART 5: Pennsylvania - William Penn - "The New Sweden" and the murder of PM Olof Palme.
(For other sources, see section 1-3).
Associated Press Online (2000): US to be sued in Diana Case. 30 August.
Bainerman, Joel (1992): The crimes of a President. Spi Books.
Blum, William (1995): Killing Hope; US Military and CIA interventions. Common Courage Press.
Bondeson, Jan (2005): Blood on the Snow: The Killing of Olof Palme. Cornell University Press.
District Of Columbia Circuit Court (2001): Ruling, Mohamed Al-Fayed and Punch Limited vs Central Intelligence Agency et al. No. 00-5457. 13 July. http://pacer.cadc.uscourts.gov/common/opinions/200107/00-5457a.txt
Granskningskommissionen (GK) (1999): Brottsutredningen efter mordet på statsminister Olof Palme. Granskningskommissionens betänkande. ("The Criminal Investigation after the Murder of Prime Minister Olof Palme. The Commission's Report.") SOU 1999:88.
Honegger, Barbara (1989): October Surprise. Tudor Publishing Company.
Hunter, Jane, Jonathan Marshall, och Peter Dale Scott (1986): Iran-Contra Connection, Secret Teams. Black Rose Books.
Lidbom, Carl (1990): Ett uppdrag. ("A Mission".) Wahlström & Widestrand, Stockholm, Sweden.
News Media and the Law (2001): Slow starters; journalists now should take quick study of when they are entitled to expedited review. 1 April.
Newsweek (1999): "This has been surreal", first Dodi 9 August.
Parry, Robert (1993): Trick or Treason. The October Surprise Mystery. Sheridan Square Press.
Poutiainen, Kari och Pertti (1995): Inuti labyrinten. ("Inside the Labyrinth".) Grimur Förlag, Stockholm, Sweden.
Sick, Gary (1991): October Surprise. America's Hostages in Iran and the Election of Ronald Reagan. Times Books.
Stich, Rodney (1999): Drugging America. Diablo Western Press.
Tarpley, Webster and Anton Chaitkin (1992): George Bush the Unauthorized Biography. Executive Intelligence Review.
The Evening Standard (London, UK) (1999): What happened in the two years since the Princess of Wales died. Diana: Official verdict. 3 September.
The Mirror (London, UK) (1998): Revealed: The secret papers in Diana death plot sting. 14 May.
The Sunday Herald (2006): Ex-CIA agents claim they were smeared to cover up the truth. 7 May.
Vankin, Jonathan and John Whalen (1998): The 70 Greatest Conspiracies of All Time. Carol Publishing.
Wall, Gunnar (1998): Mörkläggning - statsmakten och Palmemordet I/II. ("Cover-up: Government Power and the Palme Murder I/II".) Bokforlaget Kärret, Stockholm, Sweden.
Washington Post (2001): Tinker, tailor, poet, spy? He's played the part of an ex-CIA agent for years now. It's a convincing act. 15 February.
Washington Times (1991): Bani-Sadr to talk of `Surprise,' but appetite fades for an inquiry. 8 May.
Willan, Philip (1991): Puppetmasters. Constable and Company.